She’s essentially his own personal Stuart Smalley
What’s the woman behind the man who just lost his job whispering in his ear? Most likely: “You’re good enough. You’re smart enough. And doggone it, people like you.”
It’s what Berkeley sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild defined in 1979 as “emotion work” — unpaid emotional maintenance that a person undertakes in their private life. Not to be confused, however, with “emotional labor,” another term Hochschild coined, which is essentially paid emotional work — managing feelings and facial expressions to fulfill the emotional requirements of a job.
Both terms are in play these days when married white-collar men are unemployed, says Aliya Rao, a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University who interviewed 25 college-educated, white-collar men and their wives for a study entitled, “The Woman Behind the Man: Unemployed Men, Their Wives and the Emotional Labor of Job-Searching.” Rao found that wives do a significant amount of emotional work at home to get their husbands in the right mindset to demonstrate to potential employers that their killers when it comes to emotional labor.
“How are you going to find a job when you have no confidence and are very emotional?” asked Emily Bader, one of the wives Rao interviewed. Emily’s husband Brian had been unemployed for more than a year, and it showed on his face. She thought Brian needed to be confident and upbeat so she would cheerfully proclaim that “any company would be lucky to have him,” all the while fearing his morose demeanor would make employers feel otherwise.
Rao explains that wives like Emily are simultaneously doing two kinds of emotion work: “Other-focused emotion work,” i.e., shaping husbands’ emotions into more positive ones; and “self-focused emotion work,” i.e., suppressing concerns and managing their own anxieties for the benefit of husbands during a job search.
We recently spoke with Rao about both, and why the phenomenon seems to only apply to unemployed men…
What did Emily’s emotion work look like?
She would tell Brian that he’s a good worker, but then in interviews with me she’d say, “I know he’s a good worker, but he didn’t play the game of politics correctly. He should’ve seen that he was going to be let go and should’ve worked to protect himself and not mouthed off to his boss that way.”
She wouldn’t say this to him — at least not yet. He was still in a wounded, vulnerable stage looking for work and not finding it. So she was reminding him of the good stuff. She told me, “At the same time, it’s killing me inside because I can’t tell him what I think and have to put on this smiley, brave face when that’s not how I feel.” Brian agreed he was feeling down, but Brian didn’t know about the work Emily was doing to mask her real concern. That’s the whole point of emotion work, though: The other person shouldn’t be able to tell that you’re doing it.
How did the other wives in your study exhibit emotion work?
I found that these wives were doing several things, one of which was trying to make their husbands feel confident. They had lost their job for whatever reason and hadn’t found a new one in at least six months, so they were feeling pretty down and starting to wonder, What’s wrong with me? Wives were reassuring them that they had skills. They often used previous experiences and referenced things previous bosses or other colleagues might have said as proof of their value in the workplace, even though they were worried, too, and maybe doubting their husband’s skills. So even when the wives were cheerleading, they too were worried whether their husbands were going to get a job.
How did they manage to do both?
By doing both “self-focused emotion work” and “other focused emotion work.” The latter involves wives focusing on how he feels, cheerleading to instill confidence and a sense of professional worth in him. For example, as men were going through the job-search process — sending out a resume, having a phone interview, having an in-person interview, etc. — wives would celebrate each stage: See, you made it to the next phase! They described this as an “incremental” way of measuring progress. That way, if he didn’t get the job, it wouldn’t mean that he wasn’t a valuable candidate or a worthy worker…