Working on the AN/FSQ-7 computer in a Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (or SAGE) air defence system facility. Photo by Andreas Feininger/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty
How the hair-trigger nuclear age and fears of Armageddon inspired visionary cold warriors to invent the internet
‘We have some big trouble,’ president John F Kennedy told his brother, the attorney general Bobby Kennedy, early in the morning of 16 October 1962.
A few hours later, the younger Kennedy was staring at pictures of Cuba taken by the U-2 surveillance aircraft. ‘Those sons of bitches, Russians,’ he said, sitting in the White House with a group of officials dedicated to overthrowing Fidel Castro.
The pictures showed the telltale signs of Soviet missile launchers. The CIA had used a massive computer – which took the better part of a room to house – to calculate the precise measurements and capabilities of the missiles installed. Their dismal conclusion was that these missiles had a range of more than 1,000 miles, making them capable of reaching Washington, DC in just 13 minutes. This revelation sparked off a crisis that lasted almost two weeks. As the standoff over Cuba intensified, US military forces reached DEFCON 2, just one alert level before the start of nuclear war.
As military and civilian commanders clamoured for information on a minute-by-minute basis, computers such as the IBM 473L of the United States Air Force were being used for the first time in the midst of a conflict to process real-time information on how, for example, to allocate military forces. Yet even with the growing availability of computers, sharing that information among military commanders involved a time lag. The idea of having the information travel between connected computers did not yet exist.
After 13 days of scrambling forces to carry out a potential attack, the Soviet Union agreed to remove its missiles from Cuba. Nuclear war was averted, but the standoff also demonstrated the limits of command and control. With the complexities of modern warfare, how can you effectively control your nuclear forces if you cannot share information in real time? Unbeknown to most of the military’s senior leadership, a relatively low-level scientist had just arrived at the Pentagon to address that very problem. The solution he would come up with became the agency’s most famous project, revolutionising not just military command and control but modern computing too.
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider – JCR, or simply Lick to his friends – spent much of his time at the Pentagon hiding. In a building where most bureaucrats measured their importance by proximity to the secretary of defence, Licklider was relieved when the Advanced Research Projects Agency, or ARPA, assigned him an office in the D‑Ring, one of the Pentagon’s windowless inner circles. There, he could work in peace.
One time, Licklider invited ARPA employees to a meeting at the Marriott hotel between the Pentagon and the Potomac River, to demonstrate how someone in the future would use a computer to access information. As the chief proselytiser for interactive computing, Licklider first wanted people to understand the concept. He was trying to demonstrate how, in the future, everyone would have a computer, people would interact directly with those computers, and the computers would all be connected together. He was demonstrating personal computing and the modern internet, years before they existed.
There is little debate that Licklider’s reserved but forceful presence in ARPA laid the foundations for computer networking – work that would eventually lead to the modern internet. The real question is: why? The truth is complicated, and it is impossible to divorce the internet’s origins from the Pentagon’s interest in the problems of war, both limited and nuclear. ARPA was established in 1958 to help the United States catch up with the Soviets in the space race, but by the early 1960s, it had branched off into new research areas, including command and control. The internet would likely not have been born without the military’s need to wage war, or at least it would not have been born at ARPA. Tracing the origins of computer networking at ARPA requires understanding what motivated the Pentagon to hire someone like Licklider in the first place.
It started with brainwashing…
WRITTEN BY: NEWS EDITORS
We first want to thank Fox News for FINALLY reporting on a subject that has been highly censored by the mainstream media for the past 5+ years, the situation in Fukushima, Japan is completely out of control. While Fox News recently reported that radiation levels at Fukushima were now at ‘unimaginable levels’ more than 5 years after the disastrous earthquake and tsunami struck, as Steve Quayle asked in an SQNote he left while linking to that story, why has the mainstream media been silent all of this time?
(Article by Stefan Stanford from Allnewspipeline.com)
We’ve long believed that ‘reality’ has a way of ‘awakening’ everybody and the stories recently coming across the wire over at ENENews have been mind-numbing the last few weeks to say the least. You can hear the Fox News report on Fukushima in the 1st video below while in the 2nd video, Mike Adams over at Natural News gives us a new update on the ‘Fukushima radiation apocalypse’ that has been steadily spewing poisons into our atmosphere for almost 6 years now with hardly a peep from the MSM.
In the most recent stories from ENENews, on February 5th they reported the heartbreaking news that a record high number of whale deaths had recently been reported surrounding the Hawaiian Islands with the sick and starving animals allegedly a ‘mystery’ to experts. Reporting that rotting carcasses were scattered throughout the islands, how can so-called experts NOT know that Fukushima poisons flowing into our oceans for years are most likely to blame?
As Adams tells us in his video, the sustainability of all life throughout the Northern hemisphere is in danger and the entire MSM up until now has been in a complete blackout mode except for this recent reports. Do CNN, MSNBC and the rest of them think that if they DON’T report upon Fukushima, what’s happening to the fish and our oceans is ‘fake news’? Do they think that because we can’t actually SEE the radiation, it’s not really there? The MSM’s failure to report upon Fukushima may be the final straw that not only breaks the camel’s back but puts that camel out of our misery.
For the past several years, we’ve reported horror story after horror story of sea life dying all across the Pacific Ocean and up and down the entire West coast, from Alaska to California. Also documented in great detail over the past several years by ENENews, with mass animal deaths all across the world being kept track of by End Times Prophecy, it’s clear that the mainstream media has completely failed the American public on Fukushima.
Another recent story over at ENENews reports on Fox News’ sudden admission that Fukushima is out of control, highlighting a few phrases used by Fox in their report that shows just how completely out of touch the MSM has been with reality over the past 5+ years. Their story also brings to light :
Fox News, Feb 8, 2017 (emphasis added): Adam Housley, who reported from the area in 2011 following the catastrophic triple-meltdown, said this morning that new fuel leaks have been discovered… He said that critics, including the U.S. military in 2011, have long questioned whether Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) and officials have been providing accurate information on the severity of the radiation… He added that critics are now questioning whether the radiation has been this severe all along.
Fox News video transcript excerpts, Feb 8, 2017: “Experts believe melted fuel is leaking inside the plant almost daily… No one knew [in 2011] of the growing threat which today only continues to get worse… Wow, this is a crazy story… What some people are saying is, ‘ Has it been this bad since the beginning?’”
Quite surprisingly after all of their years of silence, the Washington Post actually finally reported on Fukushima on February 8th in a story in which they asked: “Could the radiation level be even higher? Possibly. The 530 sievert reading was recorded some distance from the melted fuel, so in reality it could be 10 times higher than recorded” said Hideyuki Ban, co-director of Citizens’ Nuclear Information Center.
Imagine that… ten times higher than the ‘unimaginable levels’ already detected. Is this why the MSM is finally reporting upon Fukushima? As a commenter on the Washington Post story wisely mentions, we’re watching a run-a-way train speeding completely out of control and experts have admitted, there is really no way to stop it… and least not in the next several decades.
Devastating to our oceans and therefore our food chain, we read in the new SQAlert seen below that most Americans are completely clueless to what is happening to the Pacific Ocean and up and down the West Coast of America.
Regarding this forever-lied-about Fukushima tonnage released daily, the problem is two-fold— 1) only a small (yet growing) number of dumbed-down, Facebook and Twitter-absorbed, McDonald’s food-engorging people are even AWARE…..yes, after five years…..of how serious Fukushima is. It is because the mainstream media doesn’t breathe a word about it. 2) the second issue is RAMPANT APATHY, RESIGNATION, AND DENIAL. I sent the bleak and depressing coast-of-Chile sardine kill photos to friends everywhere and not even ONE (we are talking about people your age and mine….about 65….highly successful and intelligent) wrote me back with perhaps a query as to whether it MUST BE radiation from Fukushima or if it MIGHT HOPEFULLY BE El Nino algae “red bloom” choking off oxygen.
ONLY A HANDFULL….REALLY CARE. THE WORD I AM LOOKING FOR IS FATALISM. DAVID C. (MY RESPONSE – SQ DENIAL UNTO DESTRUCTION – FATALISM USUALLY DEALS WITH FUTILITY AND HELPLESSNESS TO AN OVERWHELMING EVENT OR DISASTER -THIS IS THE WILLING ABANDONMENT, OF REASON AND PERCEPTION – NICE WAY OF DISMISSING YOU AND THE SERIOUS NATURE OF THE INFORMATION YOU SENT THEM! — THEIR ATTITUDE IS FORGET ABOUT IT – MY ADVICE TO YOU FORGET ABOUT THEM UNLESS THE LORD TELLS YOU DIFFERENTLY)
And the ignorance of the American people in itself is the work of the MSM, neglecting to report upon what could be the most important health story in America and the northern hemisphere today – a story that up until now, has flown completely under the MSM radar. So why would the MSM ‘black out’ Fukushima for nearly 6 years and why are they suddenly reporting upon what’s happening there now?
In the new story from Mike Adams over at Natural News he reports “there are times when I’m convinced humanity is a suicidal cult of complete idiots whose only real achievement is figuring out increasingly obscene ways to distract themselves from reality.” Adams points out that while most of the nation was fixated on the Super Bowl and Lady Gaga, the Fukushima disaster got much worse…and the MSM remained silent…
Wednesday, February 22, 2017 by: Ethan Huff
(Natural News) Mysterious plumes of radioactive iodine-131, the same nuclear isotope seen during the Fukushima disaster, have suddenly started appearing all over Europe. And according to reports, nobody seems to know where they’re coming from — that, or authorities are choosing to deliberately keep the undisclosed source(s) out of public view.
Trace amounts of the highly damaging form of radiation, which is known to destroy the thyroid gland, have been found in at least seven European countries, including in Norway, Finland, the Czech Republic, Germany, France, and Spain. Such radiation typically comes from either nuclear energy plants or atomic bombs — and the latter presumably haven’t been set off anywhere recently.
According to The Sun, the source of the toxic particles appears to be somewhere in Eastern Europe, despite the majority of them having been identified in countries to the West and North. The only other source from which such particles could be emerging are certain medical devices, though for their spread to be so wide across so many different regions is highly unlikely.
Finland’s Radiation Safety Authority (STUK) says it also identified trace amounts of the radioactive isotopes cobalt-60, niobium-95, and cesium-134, all of which are also directly associated with nuclear processes. Investigations into the source of these particles are ongoing, and experts are insistent that the levels are so low that they do not pose a significant health risk to the public.
“The preliminary report states it (iodine-131) was first found during the week 2 of January 2017 in northern Norway,” reads a press release issued by the France-based Institute de Radioprotection et de Süreté Nucléaire (IRSN).
Norwegian nuclear officials claim informing public right away about radiation wasn’t necessary because levels were ‘low’
What’s strange about this radioactive presence throughout Europe is that its levels are seemingly so low as to be almost impossibly dispersed. One would think that having the same type of radiation detected in so many places at once would indicate much higher amounts of it, but experts insist that the levels are low enough as to be harmless.
The world heard plenty of this same narrative during and after the Fukushima disaster — and it is still the official story today, despite ongoing problems at the stricken plant that continue to harm Japan, the world’s oceans, and possibly even the West Coast of the U.S.— a majority of the world, essentially.
According to officials in Finland, the levels of radiation detected there were less than one-millionth of a Becquerel per cubic meter of air — not very much in terms of serious safety concerns. But as many Natural News readers are well aware, any amount of radiation is a health threat, and its source a pertinent area of concern.
“We do measure small amounts of radioactivity in air from time to time because we have very sensitive measuring equipment,” the head of Norway’s Radiation Protection Authority, Astrid Liland, told reporters when asked why it took so long to inform the public about the potential looming threat.
“The measurements at Svanhovd in January were very, very low. So were the measurements made in neighboring countries, like Finland. The levels raise no concern for humans or the environment. Therefore, we believe this had no news value.”
Ironically, Norway’s radiation levels were higher than in Finland, and yet Finnish nuclear officials were quick to issue a public statement out of precaution. Like Norway and France, however, Finland insists that radiation levels are far lower than what can have “any effect” on human health.
There are nuclear plants located in Finland, Sweden, and Russia where the nuclear particles in question could have emerged. Investigators are working to trace where they came from as quickly as possible.
It’s not just the radiation you’d need to worry about.
It’s been more than 70 years since two nuclear bombs were detonated over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing at least 129,000 people, and causing devastating, long-term health effects.
To date, those are the only instances of nuclear weapons being used for warfare, but the reality is there are almost 15,000 nuclear warheads remaining in the world today – and many of them are substantially bigger than the ones used during WWII. So, what would happen if nuclear war broke out tomorrow?
Don’t panic – there’s no evidence nuclear war is on the horizon. But in the video below, the team from AsapSCIENCE breaks down the science of nuclear bombs to predict how likely you’d be to survive. Let’s just say, in the case of a nuclear blast, you would want to be wearing white.
First, let’s get this out of the way – there is no clear-cut impact of a single nuclear bomb, because it depends on a whole lot of things, including the weather on the day it’s dropped, the time of day it’s detonated, the geographical layout of where it hits, and whether it explodes on the ground or in the air.
But generally speaking, there are some predictable stages of a nuclear bomb blast.
As the video above explains, approximately 35 percent of the energy of a nuclear blast is released in the form of thermal radiation. And seeing as thermal radiation travels at approximately the speed of light, the first thing that will hit you is a flash of blinding light and heat.
The light itself is enough to cause something called flash blindness – a temporary form of blindness that can last a few minutes.
The AsapSCIENCE video considers a 1 megaton bomb, which is 80 times larger than the bomb detonated over Hiroshima, but much smaller than many modern nuclear weapons (more on that later).
For a bomb that size, people up to 21 km (13 miles) away would experience flash blindness on a clear day, and people up to 85 km (52.8 miles) away would be temporarily blinded on a clear night.
Heat is an issue for those closer to the blast. Mild, first degree burns can occur up to 11 km (6.8 miles) away, and third degree burns – the kind that destroy and blister skin tissue – could affect anyone up to 8 km (5 miles) away.
Third degree burns that cover more than 24 percent of the body will likely be fatal if people don’t receive medical care immediately.
Those distances are variable, depending not just on the weather, but also on what you’re wearing – white clothes can reflect some of the energy of a blast, while darker clothes will absorb it.
That’s unlikely to make much difference for those unfortunate enough to be at the centre of the explosion, though.
The temperatures near the site of the bomb blast during the Hiroshima explosion were estimated to be 300,000 degrees Celsius (540,000 degrees Fahrenheit) – which is 300 times hotter than the temperature bodies are cremated at, so humans were almost instantly reduced to their most basic minerals.
But for those slightly further away from the centre of the blast, that’s not what’s most likely to kill you.
As the video above explains, most of the energy released in a nuclear explosion is in the blast, which drives air away from the site of the explosion, creating sudden changes in air pressure that can crush objects and knock down buildings.
Within a 6-km (3.7-mile) radius of a 1-megaton bomb, blast waves will produce 180 tonnes of force on the walls of all two-storey buildings, and wind speeds of 255 km/h (158 mph).
In a 1-km (0.6-mile) radius, the peak pressure is four times that amount, and wind speeds can reach 756 km/h (470 mph).
Technically, humans can withstand that much pressure, but most people would be killed by falling buildings.
If you somehow survive all of that, there’s still the radiation poisoning to deal with – and the nuclear fallout.
We’ll let AsapSCIENCE explain that in the video above, but the ongoing effects on the planet of that fallout are longer-lasting than you might expect.
Again, all of this is hypothetical, there are international treaties in place to stop the spread of nuclear weapons, so we hope you never need to know any of this information for real.
But before we let you go, we should touch on the fact that 1 megaton bombs are barely the standard these days – the largest nuclear weapon ever tested is the 50 megaton Tsar bomb that was dropped on an isolated island in Russia, and released roughly the energy of 3,333 Hiroshima bombs combined.
If you want to put that in perspective, check out the anxiety-inducing video below:
Fukushima Radioactive Death Hugs West Coast
As We Have Told You For Over Five Years, Fukushima Cesium 134 And Countless Other Radionuclides Have Never Stopped Coming To The West Coast – They Have Essentially Destroyed The North Pacific Ocean And Are Concentrating Along The West Coast – Do Not Eat ANYTHING FromThe Pacific Ocean