When Exercise Becomes Too Much of a Good Thing

Photograph by Thomas Hawk / Flickr

In a world where only 1 in 5 American adults meet the minimum daily exercise requirements, exercise addiction can seem like the opposite of a problem. Don’t let that fool you, says Marilyn Freimuth, a clinical psychologist at Fielding Graduate University, in Santa Barbara. “Exercise addiction can completely take over someone’s life. They’re getting injured, all they can do is think about exercising, but because our culture values physical activity,” she says, “we overlook the issue.”

In their 2015 book The Truth About Exercise Addiction: Understanding the Dark Side of Thinspiration, author Katherine Schreiber and Jacksonville University professor of kinesiology Heather Hausenblas write, “Exercise addicts experience physical activity as both a coping mechanism and a compulsion without which they feel they cannot survive.” People generally feel better both physically and mentally after working out. But for exercise addicts, that positive surge—similar to the ones gambling- and sex-addicts feel—is substantially higher: It can give athletes and non-athletes alike a powerful buzz of pleasure that can leave them coming back for more, ultimately leading to a life tethered to the treadmill, so to speak, and serious medical consequences, including fatigue, overuse injuries (stress fractures, pulled muscles, tendonitis), infections that won’t go away, electrolyte imbalances, cardiac issues, and, perhaps paradoxically, listlessness.

To see this play out, we may need to look no further than the Olympics. Exercise addiction seems to increase, at least among athletes, the more elite they become, according to a study, published last month, in Journal of Behavioral Addictions. Tim Brewerton, a physician at the Medical University of South Carolina, agrees. “We venerate Olympic athletes almost like gods. We give them lots of praise and attention, but if we knew anything of what their lives were like…” he says, trailing off. “I think many of them likely experience some type of exercise addiction—they are training constantly for years.”

What makes exercise addiction a thorny phenomenon to study, though, is its complicated relationship with eating disorders. In the 1800s, for example, physicians treating young women with anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and persistent weight loss, often noted their extreme restlessness and need to constantly move about. And in a 1984 study, a group of physicians had noted in the Journal of the American Medical Association that considerably dedicated male runners, or “obligatory runners,” shared many of the same psychological traits as young women with anorexia, such as perfectionism and depression, although to a lesser degree.

“Passion exists on a continuum with addiction. Gamblers love to gamble…until they don’t.”

One potential difference between people addicted to exercise and those addicted to, well, pretty much everything else, Brewerton points out, is that people who become addicted to exercise may be prone to addictive behaviors but are also simultaneously risk-averse. They’re not the ones who are going to be binge drinking at a party or trying to score some smack in a sketchy part of town. What’s more, they get lots of positive social reinforcement for their addiction, which provides a boost for their perfectionism. It’s rare for someone to be told they exercise too much, Freimuth says. Instead, they are roundly praised for their self-discipline. Neuroscientists have identified altered reward pathways in individuals with eating disorders that make self-punishment, like self-starvation and over-exercise, paradoxically feel quite rewarding.

But when researchers went looking for exercise addiction in individuals without eating disorders, they had a hard time finding it, which led some eating-disorders professionals to conclude that exercise addiction only existed in tandem with an eating disorder. They point out the increasing number of Olympic athletes who have disclosed their own history of eating disorders. As many as 31 percent of Olympic athletes were found to have eating disorders, for example, compared to just 13 percent of the general population, according to a 2009 International Olympic Committee report. “Eating disorders and exercise addiction often appear together, but only eating disorders are recognized as diagnoses,” say Mia Lichtenstein, a clinical psychologist at the University of Southern Denmark, and her colleague, in a study published in March…

more…

http://nautil.us/blog/when-exercise-becomes-too-much-of-a-good-thing

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Brain, Curiositys, Health, Living, Psychology, Science, Sports | Leave a comment

Is Addiction a Disease?

If people see their addiction as a learnt behaviour, will it be easier for them to stop? from ww.shutterstock.com

By Femke Buisman-Pijlman & Nicole Lee

The case against

Nicole Lee, Associate Professor at the National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University

We used to think of “addiction”, or what we now call dependence, as a moral failing. This had the result of blaming the person who was addicted – it was a matter of willpower and they just weren’t trying hard enough. So the obvious solution was shaming and scolding until they did.

In the mid-20th century, a new movement started: the recovery movement, led by peer organisations such as Alcoholics Anonymous. This signalled a shift towards a focus on disease. This shift was important in understanding drug use as a health issue and focusing responses towards support rather than blaming.

The downside to this way of thinking is that it conceptualises drug use and dependence as a problem you have no control over – it needs someone or something to “fix” it (typically a medicine). The first step in the 12-step movement demonstrates this well: “I admit that I am powerless over alcohol/drugs.” The pendulum had swung in the opposite direction.

But what is a disease? Traditional definitions refer to a failing or problem with cells, tissues or organs – an illness of some sort. The organ in question here is the brain.

Many studies demonstrate cognitive deficits among drug users, but there is little evidence those brain deficits occurred before drug use. Some cognitive risk factors increase the likelihood of a drug or alcohol problem, but no-one has done a study that has measured babies’ brain structure and function, and then looked at who developed problems with drugs 15 to 20 years later to see whether there are particular brain deficits that “cause” drug dependence.

A broader definition of a disease would be an “abnormal” condition of some sort – which would also place mental health issues in the category of disease. We don’t usually consider mental health problems, such as depression or anxiety, as a disease, even though they have biological (including neurological) aspects to them.

Modern understanding of brain plasticity shows repeated behaviours form strong paths in the brain. This suggests drug problems might be more of a habit ingrained in the brain by repeated reinforcement of behaviours. Those behaviours are influenced by factors such as biology, the social and environmental situation, and upbringing.

There’s no evidence anyone has become addicted to a drug on the first use (they might like it a lot on first use – enough to do it over and over until they become dependent). The disease model doesn’t account very well for people who use drugs but aren’t dependent (about 90% of people who use alcohol or other drugs), or people who use drugs and have problems other than dependence (about 20% of that 90%).

Addiction as a learnt behaviour (that can be unlearnt), with multiple influences, can better account for the wide range of ways people use alcohol and other drugs, and also for the path to dependence.

We know there are multiple factors that increase risk of a) drug use, b) drug-related problems and c) drug dependence. Some of them are probably biological, but we haven’t found a gene or biological cause…

more…

http://www.realclearscience.com/articles/2016/08/22/is_addiction_a_disease_109732.html

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Brain, Curiositys, Drugs, Health, Living, Psychology | Leave a comment

THE MOST DANGEROUS SUPERSTITION IN TODAY’S SOCIETY

police

by MAVERICK WILSON

What is a superstition? In the most basic sense, it is a widely held belief in something out of material reality. It isn’t to say that things that aren’t material don’t exist, but more so that some things in our world are merely accepted beliefs or opinions, yet we believe they are real.

Some ‘superstitions’ bring light into the world; the belief that we are all connected and originate from a power that exists beyond our senses is a unifying thought that brings peace to the mind and to the human community. Although not 100% proven through rational observation this belief in how our reality works is being understood more and more through science and quantum physics.

Authority

Other superstitions bring nothing but darkness or the perceived idea of darkness. For example, the widely held belief that someone has the right to harm others, based on being in a position of authority. Is it ever legitimate that someone should have the right to harm others, or is this just a belief ungrounded in reality?

Authority is the idea that some people have the right to control other people and that others must obey.

Authority in itself does not exist. It is not a tangible thing like the ground you are standing on or the device you are reading with. Authority only exists when people consent to it.

Do we need authority to function as a civilized society? Is it necessary for a few to have power of the many? How could we function without authority? What would a world look like if we didn’t have centralized authority?

This video makes simple work of these questions, revealing the truth to the cause of humanity’s greatest problems and insight into how we might change them…

more…

http://www.collective-evolution.com/2016/08/22/the-most-dangerous-superstition-in-todays-society/

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Activism, Big Brother, Curiositys, Fascism, Freak U.S.A, Media&Culture, Psychology, Rights | Leave a comment

WHAT THE FUCK ?

Unequivocal Proof Of Buildings On Mars…Look For Yourself
NASA Needs To Stop Lying – Click Here

http://www.rense.com/

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Conspiracy, UFO, Space, WHAT THE FUCK ? | Leave a comment

Do we live in a computer simulation run by our descendants? Researchers say idea can be tested

 

The conical (red) surface shows the relationship between energy and momentum in special relativity, a fundamental theory concerning space and time developed by Albert Einstein, and is the expected result if our universe is not a simulation. The flat (blue) surface illustrates the relationship between energy and momentum that would be expected if the universe is a simulation with an underlying cubic lattice.

Credit: Martin Savage

Source:University of Washington

A decade ago, a British philosopher put forth the notion that the universe we live in might in fact be a computer simulation run by our descendants. While that seems far-fetched, perhaps even incomprehensible, a team of physicists at the University of Washington has come up with a potential test to see if the idea holds water.

The concept that current humanity could possibly be living in a computer simulation comes from a 2003 paper published in Philosophical Quarterly by Nick Bostrom, a philosophy professor at the University of Oxford. In the paper, he argued that at least one of three possibilities is true:

  • The human species is likely to go extinct before reaching a “posthuman” stage.
  • Any posthuman civilization is very unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of its evolutionary history.
  • We are almost certainly living in a computer simulation.

He also held that “the belief that there is a significant chance that we will one day become posthumans who run ancestor simulations is false, unless we are currently living in a simulation.”

With current limitations and trends in computing, it will be decades before researchers will be able to run even primitive simulations of the universe. But the UW team has suggested tests that can be performed now, or in the near future, that are sensitive to constraints imposed on future simulations by limited resources.

Currently, supercomputers using a technique called lattice quantum chromodynamics and starting from the fundamental physical laws that govern the universe can simulate only a very small portion of the universe, on the scale of one 100-trillionth of a meter, a little larger than the nucleus of an atom, said Martin Savage, a UW physics professor.

Eventually, more powerful simulations will be able to model on the scale of a molecule, then a cell and even a human being. But it will take many generations of growth in computing power to be able to simulate a large enough chunk of the universe to understand the constraints on physical processes that would indicate we are living in a computer model.

However, Savage said, there are signatures of resource constraints in present-day simulations that are likely to exist as well in simulations in the distant future, including the imprint of an underlying lattice if one is used to model the space-time continuum.

The supercomputers performing lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations essentially divide space-time into a four-dimensional grid. That allows researchers to examine what is called the strong force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature and the one that binds subatomic particles called quarks and gluons together into neutrons and protons at the core of atoms.

“If you make the simulations big enough, something like our universe should emerge,” Savage said. Then it would be a matter of looking for a “signature” in our universe that has an analog in the current small-scale simulations.

Savage and colleagues Silas Beane of the University of New Hampshire, who collaborated while at the UW’s Institute for Nuclear Theory, and Zohreh Davoudi, a UW physics graduate student, suggest that the signature could show up as a limitation in the energy of cosmic rays.

In a paper they have posted on arXiv, an online archive for preprints of scientific papers in a number of fields, including physics, they say that the highest-energy cosmic rays would not travel along the edges of the lattice in the model but would travel diagonally, and they would not interact equally in all directions as they otherwise would be expected to do.

“This is the first testable signature of such an idea,” Savage said.

If such a concept turned out to be reality, it would raise other possibilities as well. For example, Davoudi suggests that if our universe is a simulation, then those running it could be running other simulations as well, essentially creating other universes parallel to our own.

“Then the question is, ‘Can you communicate with those other universes if they are running on the same platform?'” she said.

Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Washington. The original item was written by Vince Stricherz. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121210132752.htm

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Curiositys, Living, Matrix, Media&Culture, Science, Technology, Unbelievable | Leave a comment

Ageing out of drugs

Luis Moure, an ex-addict, pauses in East Harlem, New York, on 5 August 2015. Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty

Most addicts just stop using in time, without needing costly treatment. Why do some people walk away while others can’t?

Stacey McKenna is an environment, health and social justice writer, whose work has appeared in Narratively,Mind+Body, The Wayward Post and The Development Set, among others.

“I”m at the point in my life where I’ve been doing this 20 years or so. [It’s been] probably 22, 23 years, and I’m ready to quit,’ said Clyde, a long-time methamphetamine user now in his mid-40s. When we met in 2011, he was beginning to grow weary from decades of partying and staying up for days at a time. We sat in a conference room at a homelessness resource centre in Northern Colorado. From across the table, his pale blue eyes were bloodshot with fatigue.

By the time of my first interview with Clyde (not his real name), I’d been conducting research with active meth users for about three years, so his sentiment wasn’t news to me. After all, the highly potent central nervous system stimulant wears out most people eventually. The lack of sleep, the growing paranoia, the skyrocketing proportion of bad days to good all drive users to seek sobriety.

As with many others I studied, Clyde’s use fluctuated, sometimes dwindling to complete abstinence for weeks or even months; he talked frequently about leaving the drug behind for good. But he always went back. Intermittently homeless and plagued by debilitating and difficult-to-treat mental health issues, his circumstances seemed to lock him into his addiction.

Yet Clyde’s story – the part where he doesn’t quit – is not the norm. Most users, even the majority of those so hooked that we label them addicts, recover on their own without ever undergoing formal treatment.

Despite the common trope that trying any illicit drug – even once – will definitively lead to a life of ruin, the vast majority of people quit without such dreadful consequences. According to the United States National Institute on Drug Abuse, drug use peaks for most of us in our late teens and 20s. While more than a fifth of 18- to 25-year-olds have used an illegal substance in the past month, only 15.1 per cent of 26- to 34-year-olds and 6.7 per cent of those 35 and up report current use of illicit drugs.

The 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that roughly half of Americans aged 12 years and older have tried an illegal substance at some point in their life, while just 16.7 per cent have used an illicit drug in the past year. And only 10.2 per cent, the individuals considered ‘current users’, have taken a drug in the past month. These numbers indicate that roughly one in five people who tries an illegal drug will continue using with any regularity. When it comes to ‘hard’ drugs such as heroin or cocaine – in essence, any illegal drug aside from marijuana – fewer than a third of people aged 12 and up have ever used them; 7.4 per cent have indulged in the past year, and 3.3 per cent are current users. So, with pot out of the equation, only about one in 10 people who starts using drugs ends up using on a regular basis.

The numbers for drug dependence or abuse are even lower. According to the same report, 2.7 per cent of Americans aged 12 or older report past-year dependence on or abuse of illegal drugs, and 6.4 per cent report dependence on or abuse of alcohol. Though these percentages are relatively low, especially for ‘hard’ drugs, they still leave us with about 22 million Americans deemed in need of treatment for an alcohol or drug problem.

The fascinating statistic here is that in 2014, the most recent year for which data is available, only 11.6 per cent of those with substance-use disorders received treatment. Yet at least two-thirds of users who become addicted manage to quit or significantly reduce their consumption without formalhelp.

This suggests that it might be time to look beyond the traditional recovery paradigm and turn to the natural phenomenon of ageing out, or maturing, and what empowers it, for most…

more…

https://aeon.co/essays/most-drug-users-stop-without-help-so-long-as-they-re-not-poor

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Brain, Curiositys, Drugs, Health, Living, Psychology | Leave a comment

Couple gets high on LSD and tries to build IKEA furniture

BY: RHIANN MOORE

IKEA has (probably) caused countless breakups, family fights and ended friendships. With seemingly no solution to getting cheap furniture without entering into a metaphorical boxing ring between building partners, this couple decided to up the ante by dropping acid prior to building some furniture.

HIKEA Productions, a new documentary webseries in which various folks across the Internet attempt to build IKEA furniture under the influence, produced the video. Episode 2 features a man named Keith, magic mushrooms and a MICKE desk assembly kit.

The results are hilarious and joyful – if not (at all) successful.

http://www.theplaidzebra.com/couple-gets-high-lsd-tries-build-ikea-furniture/

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

 

Posted in Bizarre, Curiositys, Drugs, Humor, Media&Culture, Psychology | Leave a comment

SEX EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS STARTS IN KINDERGARTEN: HERE’S HOW, WHY & WHAT THEY LEARN

when

byARJUN WALIA

People often think we are starting right away to talk about sexual intercourse [with kindergartners]. Sexuality is so much more than that. It’s also about self image, developing your own identity, gender roles, and it’s about learning to express yourself, your wishes and your boundaries.” – Ineke van der Vlugt, an expert on youth sexual development for Rutgers WPF, the Dutch sexuality research institute and the organization behind Netherlands sex education curriculum.

Did you know that the Netherlands has one of the lowest teen pregnancy rates in the world? Did you know that the majority of teens in the Netherlands say their first sexual experiences were “wanted” and “fun?” It could be because by law, all primary school students in the Netherlands must receive some form of “sexuality education.” It’s not called “sex” education, because the idea is bigger thank that, according to der Vlugt. The idea here is to have open and honest conversations about relationships and love.

A 2008 United Nations report found that comprehensive sex ed allows young people to “explore their attitudes and values, and to practice the decision-making and other life skills they will need to be able to make informed choices about their sexual lives.” (source)

According to the report that was done by PBS news:

“The system allows for flexibility in how it’s taught. But it must address certain core principles – among them, sexual diversity and sexual assertiveness. That means encouraging respect for all sexual preferences and helping students develop skills to protect against sexual coercion, intimidation and abuse. The underlying principle is straightforward: Sexual development is a normal process that all young people experience, and they have the right to frank, trustworthy information on the subject.” (source)

The results of this type of program seem to speak for itself. When it comes to teen sexual health, on average, teenagers in the Netherlands do not have sex at an earlier age compared to other European countries or in the United States. Also, as mentioned earlier, teen sexual encounters in the Netherlands are “wanted” and fun” whereas in the United states, 66 percent of sexually active teens surveyed said they wished they had waited longer to have sex for the first time. Another study found that when teens in the Netherlands do actually have sex, approximately 90 percent of them use protection of some form. Teen pregnancy rates in the Netherlands are some of the lowest in world, and so are rates of HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases. (source)

A fairly recent study from Georgetown University shows unintended pregnancies, maternal deaths, and STDs are prevented more often when sex education starts in primary school. (source)

From the video below:

The teacher asks the class, “Why are they hugging?”

“Because they like each other,” one girl answers.

The teacher then asks them to think about who they like the most. Several kids say their mom or dad. One girl names her little sister. A few name other children at school…

more…

http://www.collective-evolution.com/2016/08/21/sex-education-in-the-netherlands-starts-in-kindergarten-heres-how-why-what-they-learn/

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Curiositys, Europe, Living, Media&Culture, Politics, Sex | Leave a comment

Qatari princess having sex with seven men

The British newspaper “Financial Times” revealed a heavy-caliber scandal when the British security services had broken into a London apartment only to  find the Qatari princess having collective sex.

According to the newspaper, the British police was surprised when tracing a suspect into an apartment which is owned by the Qatari princess to find her having sex with three Europeans men inside the room, while four others, including the suspect waiting in line in the hallway.

The suspect during investigation admitted that the Qatari princess, called Sheikha Salwa, a daughter of former Prime Minister Hamad bin Jassim bin Jabor Al Thani, had agreed with him through an intermediary to bring in men of special physical qualities who have experience in specific ways of collective sex in exchange of a lot of money. The Qatari princess asked him this time to bring six men at once, and asked him to stay in the apartment hall until they leave for fear of violence by anyone of them, as had happened in previous visits.

The princess in answering security personnel questions sad it is not prostitution for money, but she is paying the money to the men, and as far as she knows this is not in violation of the British law. But police told her it is against the law to use a man who has a criminal record or men for prostitution. Unlike other laws,  British law  men prostitution outside the law is punishable And that she sought sexual services outside the British law.

An office 6 insider told the Financial Times, the story of the incident and that the case will not devolve into something as the princess hold a diplomatic passport.  the British police notified the Qatari embassy of the subject, but the latter did not care about anything other than preventing publication of the scandal . “Financial Times seeking further details on the implications of the case, although the Qatari embassy tried to prevent the scandal from seeing the light of day by offering $50 million to the paper,  but the newspaper rejected the offer, and has published the facts of the case along with photos withdrawn from the princess’ “iPad” .

http://www.veteranstoday.com/2016/08/21/qatari-princess-having-sex-with-seven-men/

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Curiositys, Hypocrisy, Islam, Sex, Unbelievable | 2 Comments

‘Italy isn’t Islamic suburb’: Pisa residents rally against mosque construction near Leaning Tower

Hundreds of residents of the Italian city of Pisa have staged a rally, calling for others to sign a petition against the planned construction of a mosque only 400 meters to the city’s main attraction, the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

The rally was organized at the city market of the city of some 90,000 residents. According to Ruptly video agency, hundreds of people took part in the protest.

“We have to halt the construction of new mosques to prevent Italy from becoming an Islamic suburb to avoid losing our identity,” right wing MP and leader of the ‘No Mosque Campaign’ Daniela Santanche said.

“For this [we organize] a ‘No Mosque’ [petition to hold a] referendum, we have collected many more signatures that is needed by law. First, we need to create a law to regulate Mosques’ and imam’s actions and then hold discussions.”

She called on the people of Italy to “go on and fight for [their] national identity and the pride of being called Italians not only by law, but by [their] traditions and culture.”

“Hate is not coming from our side. We do not place bombs in airports, subways or places, where young people listen to music. That is why hate is coming from them [Muslim terrorists]. We Italians have always been kind. But now we are looking at pseudo-solidarity.”

Reports that the Pisa City Council approved the construction of the mosque 400 meters from the Leaning Tower symbol appeared in Italian media earlier in August.

Shortly after that an Egyptian-born Christian convert Magdi Allam launched a petition against the construction under hashtag #nomoschea. Those signatures are needed to launch a city referendum which may be scheduled as soon as November to decide the fate of the mosque, local media report.

The petition has already gathered 2,500 signatures, according to the organizers.

Pisa residents are divided over the issue of having a mosque in the city, with some saying they have certain concerns and feel uneasy about it.

“The problem is that we don’t know Arabic and can’t understand what they are talking about. We don’t know who is praying in this mosque,” one woman told RT.

“In 20 to 30 years they will be in charge here! And it’s sad that the officials still cannot understand that we, real Italians, are evaporating,” another added.

One woman questioned the source of financing the building which is expected to cost €4.5million.

“I respect the fact that they want to build a mosque and pray there. But would I be allowed if I wanted to build a catholic church in an Islamic country? And more so – where is the money coming from for the building?” she said.

Yet, there were those who supported the idea of constructing a mosque next to the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

“I say yes to mosques. I live right opposite the place, where they are going to build it. I am happy – they have cleaned up the area,” one woman told RT.

A young man added that the mosque is “absolutely normal.”

“Everyone can pray to their own god. In Morocco and in Casablanca [Morocco] there are seven Christian churches. I don’t see any problem in building one mosque here,” he said.

The move to build a mosque was supported by Pisa Mayor Marco Filippesch, who called for freedom of worship.

On Thursday, local Imam Mohammad Khalil told Italian media that the mosque will be “a guarantee of safety” because “it is much more controllable than [meeting in] dozens of garages and basements,” he said.

The protest comes a week after an Italian court ordered the expulsion of Tunisian national Bilel Chiahoui, suspected of planning an attack on the Leaning Tower. He was also accused of praising militants that had carried out terrorist attacks in Western Europe.

https://www.rt.com/news/356708-pisa-italy-mosque-rally/

WIKK WEB GURU

WIKK WEB GURU

Posted in Bizarre, Europe, Freak Religion, Islam, Politics, Unbelievable | Leave a comment